Rhythmic Analysis of Music Genres using R Programming

Objective: The objective of this project is to leverage R programming, statistical analysis, and data visualization to explore the rhythmic characteristics of different music genres. By analyzing the beats per minute (BPM) and other rhythmic features of a diverse dataset of songs, this project aims to uncover patterns and insights that define each genre’s unique rhythmic profile. The project will involve data collection, data preprocessing, statistical analysis, and the creation of interactive visualizations to present the findings.

Learning Outcomes: By completing this project, you will learn how to:

  1. Utilize R programming for data analysis and visualization.
  2. Apply statistical techniques to explore and interpret data.
  3. Collect and preprocess data using APIs and R packages.
  4. Gain insights into the rhythmic characteristics of music genres.
  5. Create interactive visualizations to present analysis results.

Steps and Tasks: 1. Data Collection: To begin, you will need a diverse dataset of songs representing different music genres. You can collect this data using the Spotify API, which provides information about songs, including their genre labels. In R, you can use the httr package to make API requests and retrieve the necessary data. The Spotify API requires authentication, so you will need to create a developer account and obtain an API key.

2. Data Preprocessing: Once you have obtained the song data, you will need to preprocess it to extract the relevant features for rhythmic analysis. The key feature of interest is the beats per minute (BPM), which indicates the tempo or speed of a song. You can use the tidyverse package in R to clean and transform the data. Remove any missing or erroneous values, and create a new dataset containing the song name, genre, and BPM.

3. Statistical Analysis: Next, you will conduct a statistical analysis to compare the rhythmic characteristics across different music genres. Start by calculating descriptive statistics, such as the mean, median, and standard deviation of BPM, for each genre. You can use R functions like mean(), median(), and sd() for this analysis. Additionally, you can perform an analysis of variance (ANOVA) to determine if there are significant differences in BPM among the genres. The aov() function in R can be used for ANOVA.

4. Data Visualization: To effectively communicate your analysis findings, you will create visualizations using R. Begin by plotting boxplots of BPM for each genre to visualize the distribution and identify any outliers. You can use the ggplot2 package in R for this visualization. Additionally, create a bar plot showing the mean BPM for each genre to compare the average tempo across genres. Enhance the visualizations by adding appropriate labels, titles, and color schemes.

5. Interactive Visualization: To take your data visualization to the next level, you will create an interactive visualization using the shiny package in R. This interactive app should allow users to select a genre from a dropdown menu and display a histogram of BPM for that genre. The app should also include a slider to adjust the number of bins in the histogram. The shinydashboard package can be used to create a visually appealing dashboard layout for your app.

Evaluation: You can evaluate the success of your project based on the following criteria:

  • The accuracy and thoroughness of your data collection and preprocessing methods.
  • The soundness of your statistical analysis, including the appropriate use of descriptive statistics and the ANOVA.
  • The clarity and effectiveness of your data visualizations in conveying the analysis results.
  • The functionality and user-friendliness of your interactive visualization.

Resources and Learning Materials:

  1. R Programming for Data Science: https://www.r-project.org/
  2. Spotify API Documentation: Web API | Spotify for Developers
  3. Introduction to the Tidyverse: https://www.tidyverse.org/
  4. Visualizations with ggplot2: https://ggplot2.tidyverse.org/
  5. Building Interactive Web Applications with Shiny: https://shiny.rstudio.com/
  6. RStudio: https://rstudio.com/

Need a little extra help? Here’s some code to help you get started with this project:

1. Data Collection: To collect data using the Spotify API, you will need to install and load the httr package in R. You will also need to create a Spotify developer account and obtain an API key. Replace 'YOUR_API_KEY' with your actual API key.


# Set your API key
api_key <- 'YOUR_API_KEY'

# Make a GET request to the Spotify API to retrieve song data
response <- GET(
  url = 'https://api.spotify.com/v1/tracks',
  query = list(
    limit = 50,  # Number of songs per genre
    market = 'US',
    seed_genres = 'rock',  # Replace with the genre of your choice
  add_headers('Authorization' = paste('Bearer', api_key))

# Print the response

2. Data Preprocessing: For data preprocessing, you will need to install and load the tidyverse package in R. Assuming you have stored your song data in a dataframe called song_data, which includes the columns ‘song_name’, ‘genre’, and ‘bpm’, you can use the following code to clean the data.


# Remove rows with missing values
cleaned_data <- song_data %>% na.omit()

# Remove outliers using the interquartile range (IQR) method
cleaned_data <- cleaned_data %>%
  filter(bpm >= quantile(bpm, 0.25) - 1.5*IQR(bpm) & bpm <= quantile(bpm, 0.75) + 1.5*IQR(bpm))

# Print the cleaned data

3. Statistical Analysis: For statistical analysis, you can use built-in R functions. Assuming you have cleaned your data and stored it in a dataframe called cleaned_data, which includes the column ‘genre’ for the different music genres and ‘bpm’ for the beats per minute, you can use the following code to calculate descriptive statistics and perform ANOVA.

# Load required packages

# Descriptive statistics
summary_stats <- cleaned_data %>%
  group_by(genre) %>%
    mean_bpm = mean(bpm),
    median_bpm = median(bpm),
    sd_bpm = sd(bpm)


# One-way ANOVA
anova_result <- aov(bpm ~ genre, data = cleaned_data)

4. Data Visualization: For data visualization, you will need to install and load the ggplot2 package in R. Assuming you have stored your cleaned data in a dataframe called cleaned_data, you can use the following code to create boxplots and a bar plot.


# Boxplots
boxplot <- ggplot(cleaned_data, aes(x = genre, y = bpm)) +
  geom_boxplot() +
  labs(title = "Rhythmic Analysis of Music Genres",
       x = "Genre",
       y = "Beats Per Minute") +


# Bar plot
barplot <- ggplot(summary_stats, aes(x = genre, y = mean_bpm)) +
  geom_bar(stat = "identity") +
  labs(title = "Mean Beats Per Minute by Genre",
       x = "Genre",
       y = "Mean Beats Per Minute") +


5. Interactive Visualization: For creating an interactive visualization, you will need to install and load the shiny and shinydashboard packages in R. You can use the following code as a starting point to create an interactive app.


# Define UI
ui <- dashboardPage(
  dashboardHeader(title = "Rhythmic Analysis of Music Genres"),
      menuItem("Interactive Plot", tabName = "plot")
        tabName = "plot",
            title = "Genre",
              inputId = "genre",
              label = "Select a genre:",
              choices = unique(cleaned_data$genre)
            title = "Histogram",
              inputId = "bins",
              label = "Number of bins:",
              min = 10,
              max = 50,
              value = 30
          plotOutput(outputId = "histogram")

# Define server
server <- function(input, output) {
  output$histogram <- renderPlot({
    genre_data <- cleaned_data %>%
      filter(genre == input$genre)

    ggplot(genre_data, aes(x = bpm)) +
      geom_histogram(bins = input$bins, fill = "steelblue", color = "white") +
      labs(title = paste("Histogram of Beats Per Minute for", input$genre),
           x = "Beats Per Minute",
           y = "Count") +

# Run the app
shinyApp(ui = ui, server = server)

Remember to replace 'YOUR_API_KEY' with your actual Spotify API key.

These code snippets provide a starting point for your project. Feel free to explore and experiment with different R packages and techniques to further enhance your analysis and visualizations.

Access the Code-Along for this Skill-Builder Project to join discussions, utilize the t3 AI Mentor, and more.